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[英文] 文化研究基本概念简介

  • 简介: 原文 The concept of culture has long been fundamental to the study of civilization. More than a century ago, in his book Primitive Culture, the British anthropologist Edward Tylor proposed that cultures, systems of human beha...
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原文

The concept of culture has long been fundamental to the study of civilization. More than a century ago, in his book Primitive Culture, the British anthropologist Edward Tylor proposed that cultures, systems of human behavior and thought, obey natural laws and therefore can be studied scientifically. Tylor’s definition of culture is still widely quoted. “Culture…is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” (Tylor 1). The crucial phrase here is “acquired by man as member of society.” Tylor’s definition focused on attributes that people acquire not through biological inheritance but by growing up in a particular society where they are exposed to a specific cultural tradition and absorb cultural lessons consciously and unconsciously. Everyone is cultured, not just people with elite educations. Cultures may be integrated and patterned through economic and social forces, key symbols, and core values. Cultural rules do not rigidly dictate our behavior. There is room for creativity, flexibility, diversity, and disagreement within societies. Culture is adaptive.


  目录

An Introduction to Some Basic Concepts of Cultural Change

Innovation
Diffusion
Acculturation
Modernization
Globalization
Cultural
Imperialism
Conclusion
Bibliography


  参考资料

Arnason, Johann P. “Nationaliism, Globalization and Modernity.” In Global Culture. Mike Featherstone, ed. London, Newbury Park and New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1990.
Barth, Fredrik. “A Personal View of Present tasks and Priories in Cultural and Social Anthropology.” In Assessing Cultural Anthropology. Robert Borofsky, ed. New York and London: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.
Billington, Rosamund and Sheelagh Strawbridge. Culture and Society: A Sociology of Culture. Hampshire and London: Macmillan Education Ltd., 1991.
Boas, Franz. Race, Language, and Culture. New York: Free Press, 1940.
Boyd-Barrett, O. “Mass Communication in Cross-Cultural Contexts: The Case of the Third World.” In Mass Communication and Society. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1977.

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