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中国式衡平——论宋代司法中情、理、法的综合运用

  • 简介:(字数:20435页数:24 毕业论文)摘 要:中国的法律自古以来受到儒家思想的影响。直至宋代,儒家思想发展到一个新的高度。宋代司法过程中,特别是民事诉讼法方面,呈现出新的特点:司法官们巧妙地把情、理融入国法,运用天理人情作为判案依据,以弥补和纠...
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(字数:20435页数:24 毕业论文)摘 要:中国的法律自古以来受到儒家思想的影响。直至宋代,儒家思想发展到一个新的高度。宋代司法过程中,特别是民事诉讼法方面,呈现出新的特点:司法官们巧妙地把情、理融入国法,运用天理人情作为判案依据,以弥补和纠正法律的不足与偏差的做法,具有鲜明的中国特色。即使当国法与情理一致时,法官也要把天理人情的内容写入判词,与法律一并成为断案依据;当国法与情理相冲突时便屈法申情,以情理为先;当法律无明文规定时,把情理作为法律原则性内容加以确定,从而成为结案的主要依据。
情理入法的做法在宋代广泛存在,不仅有助于实现个案的公平与正义,而且通过司法官的活动影响到整个社会法律秩序的建构和维系,特别是司法的衡平活动在很大程度上沟通了国家和社会的二元结构,调节着法律条文与与社会现实生活相脱节而造成的突出矛盾。同时,它也是司法官以司法手段执行着法律化的社会道德和伦理价值的充分体现,在传统的司法活动中司法官们既坚守着以儒家精神为代表的道德立场,又采取着相当实际的态度。总的说来,取情入理、衡平司法的做法使宋代司法更加融合,以达到统治者们所希望看到的止讼、息讼的结果。

关键词:宋代司法,情,理,法,衡平,
Chinese style equity ――The application of “human relationships”, “ethics” and “national law” in the Song dynasty justice

Abstract :Confucianism, which was later developed to a higher level in Song dynasty, had an impact on the Chinese laws since ancient times. Song justice revealed new features, especially in terms of civil procedure: judge in Song dynasty integrated the “human sentiment” and “ethics”, which served as standards for deciding a case and compensated for the deficiency on statutory law, into “national law” ingeniously. The practice in those cases is of Chinese characteristics. Even when the “national law” were consistent with the “human sentiment” and “ethics”, the judge were in favor of writing it formulary, which served as standards for deciding a case together with the law itself, into court decree. But when they conflicted with each other, the “human sentiment” and “ethics” were given preference. When no law expressly provided, the “human sentiment” and “ethics” as jurisdiction clauses content to be determined, thus becoming the main basis for deciding a case.
The combination of “human sentiment” and “ethics” and “national laws” were in existence extensively in Song dynasty, and this contributed not only the justice in individual cases but also the configuration and maintenance of social order, which was influenced by the law. However, the justice equity, to a large extent, offers communication in the Nation-Society dualistic structure and regulates the contradiction between legal provisions and social reality. Meanwhile, it is also the judge' implement of moral and ethical value with a form of law. In the traditional judicial activities, the judge not only sticks to the moral principles of Confucianism, but also takes a practical attitude. Overall, the approach of justice equity adopting human sentiment and ethics into laws in Song dynasty makes an integrated law system, which achieves the purpose of stopping suits by the ruling class.

Keywords : Song dynasties justice,Human sentiment,Ethics,National law,Equity

目 录
摘 要……………………………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
ABSTRCT……………………………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
前 言………………………………………………………………………………………1
一、情、理、法的释义………………………………………………………………2
二、宋代司法中情、理、法的综合运用 ………………………………………4
(一)执法原情,法外特例 …………………………………………………………5
1.活卖拒赎案案情介绍 ……………………………………………………………………5
2.判词中的情理观 …………………………………………………………………………6
3.案件总结 …………………………………………………………………………………5
(二)情理断狱,情法两平……………………………………………………………7
1.子婿争遗产案案情介绍 …………………………………………………………………7
2.裁定中的司法技巧 ………………………………………………………………………8
3.案例所体现的衡平思想 …………………………………………………………………8
(三)人事定案,人情即法……………………………………………………………9
三、情、理、法的综合运用的原因………………………………………………11
(一)宋朝理学的影响…………………………………………………………………11
(二)宋朝国情决定独特的适法模式………………………………………………12
(三)柔性措施缓和各种矛盾 ………………………………………………………13
四、情理入法的综合评价……………………………………………………………14
(一)一种形而上的探求………………………………………………………………14
(二)法律兼顾情理可弥补立法缺陷………………………………………………15
(三)情理入法可能导致人情泛滥,不利于维护法律权威 …………………16
(四)情理中的伦常内容应摒弃 ……………………………………………………17
五、余论 …………………………………………………………………………………19
参考文献 …………………………………………………………………………………20
致 谢 …………………………………………………………………………………21

前 言
情、理、法在中国古典法律思想以及判案原则中长期占据主导地位,三者的和谐与统一是古代司法官们长期追求的目标以及他们所要实现的法律价值,中国古代司法秩序之所以稳定延续,正是由于这一核心的价值存在。宋代的民事实体法的发达使这种价值得以实现,宋代司法制度尽管要求政府官员审判案件要严格地以法律为依据,但在实际裁判中,用统一法令处理千差万别的纠纷,根本无法做到整齐划一,所以在依法判决的过程中,必须考虑到案件产生的具体情况(即人情)及立法的基本原则(法意),还要考虑到一些地方、民族习惯。在宋朝特别是南宋时期出现的以《名公书判清明集》为代表的一系列判词,里面记载的种种民事案例说明宋代司法过程中存在情理入法的传统国情,法官们不是按照法律文字定案,而是依照人情、立法基本原则妥善处理民事纠纷,事情理法得以衡平,最终达到结案、服众、从法的结果。这便是典型的中国式衡平——从儒家信奉的中庸之道出发,站在建立和谐衡平的社会司法秩序的高度,以庖丁解牛的手法,避其障碍,挖其根本,游刃有余地游走于情理法的漩涡之中,以人形深化、人情升华作为司法审判之根本,不望文生义,而是透过纸面看到后面的人情与人性,最终达到情理法三者的和谐发展。

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